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The Universe as a Hologram
In 1982 a remarkable event took place. At the University of Paris a research team led by physicist Alain Aspect performed what may turn out to be one of the most important experiments of the 20th century. You did not hear about it on the evening news. In fact, unless you are in the habit of reading scientific journals you probably have never even heard Aspect's name, though there are some who believe his discovery may change the face of science.
Aspect and his team discovered that under certain circumstances subatomic particles such as electrons are able to instantaneously communicate with each other regardless of the distance separating them. It doesn't matter whether they are 10 feet or 10 billion miles apart.
Somehow each particle always seems to know what the other is doing. The problem with this feat is that it violates Einstein's long-held tenet that no communication can travel faster than the speed of light. Since traveling faster than the speed of light is tantamount to breaking the time barrier, this daunting prospect has caused some physicists to try to come up with elaborate ways to explain away Aspect's findings. But it has inspired others to offer even more radical explanations.
University of London physicist David Bohm, for example, believes Aspect's findings imply that objective reality does not exist, that despite its apparent solidity the universe is at heart a phantasm, a gigantic and splendidly detailed hologram.
To understand why Bohm makes this startling assertion, one must first understand a little about holograms. A hologram is a three- dimensional photograph made with the aid of a laser.
To make a hologram, the object to be photographed is first bathed in the light of a laser beam. Then a second laser beam is bounced off the reflected light of the first and the resulting interference pattern (the area where the two laser beams commingle) is captured on film.
When the film is developed, it looks like a meaningless swirl of light and dark lines. But as soon as the developed film is illuminated by another laser beam, a three-dimensional image of the original object appears.
The three-dimensionality of such images is not the only remarkable characteristic of holograms. If a hologram of a rose is cut in half and then illuminated by a laser, each half will still be found to contain the entire image of the rose.
Indeed, even if the halves are divided again, each snippet of film will always be found to contain a smaller but intact version of the original image. Unlike normal photographs, every part of a hologram contains all the information possessed by the whole.
The "whole in every part" nature of a hologram provides us with an entirely new way of understanding organization and order. For most of its history, Western science has labored under the bias that the best way to understand a physical phenomenon, whether a frog or an atom, is to dissect it and study its respective parts.
A hologram teaches us that some things in the universe may not lend themselves to this approach. If we try to take apart something constructed holographically, we will not get the pieces of which it is made, we will only get smaller wholes.
This insight suggested to Bohm another way of understanding Aspect's discovery. Bohm believes the reason subatomic particles are able to remain in contact with one another regardless of the distance separating them is not because they are sending some sort of mysterious signal back and forth, but because their separateness is an illusion. He argues that at some deeper level of reality such particles are not individual entities, but are actually extensions of the same fundamental something.
To enable people to better visualize what he means, Bohm offers the following illustration.
Imagine an aquarium containing a fish. Imagine also that you are unable to see the aquarium directly and your knowledge about it and what it contains comes from two television cameras, one directed at the aquarium's front and the other directed at its side.
As you stare at the two television monitors, you might assume that the fish on each of the screens are separate entities. After all, because the cameras are set at different angles, each of the images will be slightly different. But as you continue to watch the two fish, you will eventually become aware that there is a certain relationship between them.
When one turns, the other also makes a slightly different but corresponding turn; when one faces the front, the other always faces twoard the side. If you remain unaware of the full scope of the situation, you might even conclude that the fish must be instantaneously communicating with one another, but this is clearly not the case.
This, says Bohm, is precisely what is going on between the subatomic particles in Aspect's experiment.
According to Bohm, the apparent faster-than-light connection between subatomic particles is really telling us that there is a deeper level of reality we are not privy to, a more complex dimension beyond our own that is analogous to the aquarium. And, he adds, we view objects such as subatomic particles as separate from one another because we are seeing only a portion of their reality.
Such particles are not separate "parts", but facets of a deeper and more underlying unity that is ultimately as holographic and indivisible as the previously mentioned rose. And since everything in physical reality is comprised of these "eidolons", the universe is itself a projection, a hologram.
In addition to its phantomlike nature, such a universe would possess other rather startling features. If the apparent separateness of subatomic particles is illusory, it means that at a deeper level of reality all things in the universe are infinitely interconnected.
The electrons in a carbon atom in the human brain are connected to the subatomic particles that comprise every salmon that swims, every heart that beats, and every star that shimmers in the sky.
Everything interpenetrates everything, and although human nature may seek to categorize and pigeonhole and subdivide, the various phenomena of the universe, all apportionments are of necessity artificial and all of nature is ultimately a seamless web.
In a holographic universe, even time and space could no longer be viewed as fundamentals. Because concepts such as location break down in a universe in which nothing is truly separate from anything else, time and three-dimensional space, like the images of the fish on the TV monitors, would also have to be viewed as projections of this deeper order.
At its deeper level reality is a sort of superhologram in which the past, present, and future all exist simultaneously. This suggests that given the proper tools it might even be possible to someday reach into the superholographic level of reality and pluck out scenes from the long-forgotten past.
What else the superhologram contains is an open-ended question. Allowing, for the sake of argument, that the superhologram is the matrix that has given birth to everything in our universe, at the very least it contains every subatomic particle that has been or will be -- every configuration of matter and energy that is possible, from snowflakes to quasars, from blu?whales to gamma rays. It must be seen as a sort of cosmic storehouse of "All That Is."
Although Bohm concedes that we have no way of knowing what else might lie hidden in the superhologram, he does venture to say that we have no reason to assume it does not contain more. Or as he puts it, perhaps the superholographic level of reality is a "mere stage" beyond which lies "an infinity of further development".
Bohm is not the only researcher who has found evidence that the universe is a hologram. Working independently in the field of brain research, Standford neurophysiologist Karl Pribram has also become persuaded of the holographic nature of reality.
Pribram was drawn to the holographic model by the puzzle of how and where memories are stored in the brain. For decades numerous studies have shown that rather than being confined to a specific location, memories are dispersed throughout the brain.
In a series of landmark experiments in the 1920s, brain scientist Karl Lashley found that no matter what portion of a rat's brain he removed he was unable to eradicate its memory of how to perform complex tasks it had learned prior to surgery. The only problem was that no one was able to come up with a mechanism that might explain this curious "whole in every part" nature of memory storage.
Then in the 1960s Pribram encountered the concept of holography and realized he had found the explanation brain scientists had been looking for. Pribram believes memories are encoded not in neurons, or small groupings of neurons, but in patterns of nerve impulses that crisscross the entire brain in the same way that patterns of laser light interference crisscross the entire area of a piece of film containing a holographic image. In other words, Pribram believes the brain is itself a hologram.
Pribram's theory also explains how the human brain can store so many memories in so little space. It has been estimated that the human brain has the capacity to memorize something on the order of 10 billion bits of information during the average human lifetime (or roughly the same amount of information contained in five sets of the Encyclopaedia Britannica).
Similarly, it has been discovered that in addition to their other capabilities, holograms possess an astounding capacity for information storage--simply by changing the angle at which the two lasers strike a piece of photographic film, it is possible to record many different images on the same surface. It has been demonstrated that one cubic centimeter of film can hold as many as 10 billion bits of information.
Our uncanny ability to quickly retrieve whatever information we need from the enormous store of our memories becomes more understandable if the brain functions according to holographic principles. If a friend asks you to tell him what comes to mind when he says the word "zebra", you do not have to clumsily sort back through ome gigantic and cerebral alphabetic file to arrive at an answer. Instead, associations like "striped", "horselike", and "animal native to Africa" all pop into your head instantly.
Indeed, one of the most amazing things about the human thinking process is that every piece of information seems instantly cross- correlated with every other piece of information--another feature intrinsic to the hologram. Because every portion of a hologram is infinitely interconnected with ever other portion, it is perhaps nature's supreme example of a cross-correlated system.
The storage of memory is not the only neurophysiological puzzle that becomes more tractable in light of Pribram's holographic model of the brain. Another is how the brain is able to translate the avalanche of frequencies it receives via the senses (light frequencies, sound frequencies, and so on) into the concrete world of our perceptions. Encoding and decoding frequencies is precisely what a hologram does best. Just as a hologram functions as a sort of lens, a translating device able to convert an apparently meaningless blur of frequencies into a coherent image, Pribram believes the brain also comprises a lens and uses holographic principles to mathematically convert the frequencies it receives through he senses into the inner world of our perceptions.
An impressive body of evidence suggests that the brain uses holographic principles to perform its operations. Pribram's theory, in fact, has gained increasing support among neurophysiologists.
Argentinian-Italian researcher Hugo Zucarelli recently extended the holographic model into the world of acoustic phenomena. Puzzled by the fact that humans can locate the source of sounds without moving their heads, even if they only possess hearing in one ear, Zucarelli discovered that holographic principles can explain this ability.
Zucarelli has also developed the technology of holophonic sound, a recording technique able to reproduce acoustic situations with an almost uncanny realism.
Pribram's belief that our brains mathematically construct "hard" reality by relying on input from a frequency domain has also received a good deal of experimental support.
It has been found that each of our senses is sensitive to a much broader range of frequencies than was previously suspected.
Researchers have discovered, for instance, that our visual systems are sensitive to sound frequencies, that our sense of smell is in part dependent on what are now called "osmic frequencies", and that even the cells in our bodies are sensitive to a broad range of frequencies. Such findings suggest that it is only in the holographic domain of consciousness that such frequencies are sorted out and divided up into conventional perceptions.
But the most mind-boggling aspect of Pribram's holographic model of the brain is what happens when it is put together with Bohm's theory. For if the concreteness of the world is but a secondary reality and what is "there" is actually a holographic blur of frequencies, and if the brain is also a hologram and only selects some of the frequencies out of this blur and mathematically transforms them into sensory perceptions, what becomes of objective reality?
Put quite simply, it ceases to exist. As the religions of the East have long upheld, the material world is Maya, an illusion, and although we may think we are physical beings moving through a physical world, this too is an illusion.
We are really "receivers" floating through a kaleidoscopic sea of frequency, and what we extract from this sea and transmogrify into physical reality is but one channel from many extracted out of the superhologram.
This striking new picture of reality, the synthesis of Bohm and Pribram's views, has come to be called the holographic paradigm, and although many scientists have greeted it with skepticism, it has galvanized others. A small but growing group of researchers believe it may be the most accurate model of reality science has arrived at thus far. More than that, some believe it may solve some mysteries that have never before been explainable by science and even establish the paranormal as a part of nature.
Numerous researchers, including Bohm and Pribram, have noted that many para-psychological phenomena become much more understandable in terms of the holographic paradigm.
In a universe in which individual brains are actually indivisible portions of the greater hologram and everything is infinitely interconnected, telepathy may merely be the accessing of the holographic level.
It is obviously much easier to understand how information can travel from the mind of individual 'A' to that of individual 'B' at a far distance point and helps to understand a number of unsolved puzzles in psychology. In particular, Grof feels the holographic paradigm offers a model for understanding many of the baffling phenomena experienced by individuals during altered states of consciousness.
Hologram technology wasinvented by Dr. Dennis Gabor, Imperial College, London. And thus he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971. In Initially, Gabor Dr. just wish to enhance the resolution of the scanning electron microscope. The early 1960s, a University of Michigan researcher Leith and Upatnieks of making the world's first set of three-dimensional holographic image. During this time, the former Soviet Union's Yuri Dennisyuk also began to try the hologram can be produced using ordinary white light viewing. Now, the continued development of the hologram technology provides us a the increasingly precise three-dimensional image.
Display Holography and Embossed Hologram Hologram Interferometry Measure
Holographic anti-counterfeit labels produced by professional security companies the first designers design laser holographic effect diagram. The hologram master system by professional laser plate-making factory, the security company under this master tomolded corresponding laser holographic film, and then through a holographic anti-counterfeit labels can be used with glue, double bottom, die-cutting process. In the production process can increase digital anti-counterfeiting technology, fluorescent anti-counterfeiting technology, ultra-miniature anti-counterfeiting technology, laser burning white, ultra-lines, so as to further improve its anti-counterfeiting efforts.
Why hologram has security features
First, it beacuse that hologram Inimitable own structure . Now most of the molded anti-counterfeit label, hologram hot stamping or holographic printing records one or more two-dimensional plane rainbow hologram pattern . Using hologram reproducing the characteristics of the three - dimensional stereoscopic images. It can be two or more) planar pattern coding along vertical stratification recorded on the hologram that re-emerged at different depths, each other plane image of the occlusion .
Since the rainbow hologram has a variable nature of the color of the reproduced image , false color coding techniques can be used , so that different patterns or different portions in the same pattern reproduced in different holographic colors . Hologram itself is a high - density complex grating, so even if the same person in different places with the same pattern and no legal system a grating identical two hologram , different people harder to copy . This difference is most obvious manifestation for reproducing image layered depth and distribution of the different colors , of course , also includes the different indicators of the diffraction efficiency , the viewing angle , and SNR . So even with a full set of equipment and technology , generic the embossed hologram anti-counterfeit labels other home , is not an easy thing . That's why hologram itself is difficult for copying.
Moreover, hologram itself is a high-tech, it requires not only high-quality equipment shockproof station, lasers and various optical components and specialized chemicals, but more important is the need to operate technologically and experienced professionals to produce qualified hologram master. The hologram grating density is typically 1000 lines / mm, undulation height of only a few tenths of microns and therefore requested to pay attention to the electroforming process and high-precision, high-quality molded copy device and holographic images copy mechanical. Performance of ordinary printing technology compared with conventional equipment alone manual also can produce the products, the production of holographic trademark, technology, personnel, technology, equipment investment shows, making difficult is not easy to cop. We also supply full set hologram production line equipmemt. To buy these equipment, please contact us and see more information on link:
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Third, encrypted information in hologram sticker also make hologram is difficult to copy.
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The use of special optical coding technique can be encrypted in the hologram label, hologram hot stamping. These holograms or may be the reproduced size of the object with the human eyes to the change in distance between the hologram changes, or stored in the hologram of a point addition information, or the hologram itself is generated by a computer dot-matrix system. With a special three-dimensional object model as the target of the hologram, the reproduction is a perspective view identical to the original. Because of the higher technological content, therefore more difficult to be copied.
Shooting requirements in order to shoot a satisfactory hologram photo shoot system must meet the following requirements:
The light source must be coherent light source
Holography is based on the principle of interference of light, so they requested that the light source must have good coherence know by the previous analysis. Holographic technology.
The emergence of the laser light for the hologram of an ideal light source. This is good because the laser coherence, He-Ne laser used in the experiment, with its shooting small diffuse object, get a good spatial coherence and time of the hologram.
Holographic system stability
Since the hologram recorded on the interference fringe, and is a thin, dense, interference fringes, minimal interference will cause the blurring of interference fringes in the photographic process, and even the interference fringes can not be recorded. Example, shooting film displacement of a micron, the stripes on a confusion, the hologram experiment station is shockproof. Table hologram optics magnetic firmly sucked on countertops steel. Further, the airflow through the optical path, the acoustic interference, and temperature changes will cause changes in the density of the surrounding air. Therefore, the exposure should prohibit loud noises, can not move around freely, the entire lab absolute quiet. Our experience is that each group tuned optical path, the students left the bench stable after a minute, and then came to light at the same time, to get a better effect.
Object light and reference light should meet.
Object light and reference light, an optical path difference should be as small as possible, preferably equal to the optical path of the two beams of light, up to not more than 2cm, adjusting the optical path with twine amount; the angle between the two-speed light at 30 ° ~ 60 °, preferably at about 45 °, because the angle is small, interference fringes on the thin, so that the lower the resolution requirements of the system stability and the photosensitive material; two light beams of the light intensity ratio should be appropriate, generally requires can be between 1:1 to 1:10, the light intensity ratio measured with a silicon photovoltaic cell out.
Using high-resolution hologram
Because recorded on the hologram backsheet is a thin, dense interference fringes, so the photosensitive material requires high-resolution. Ordinary photographic uses photosensitive film due to coarse particles of silver compounds can only record 50 to 100 per millimeter of stripes, the photosensitive film Tianjin plant the production of I-type hologram dry plate, with a resolution of up to 3000 per mm, can meet hologram photographic requirements.
Holographic photo of flushing process
The washing process is also critical. We follow the recipe requires dispensing with the developer, stop bath and fixer and bleach solution. The above several prescriptions are required to use distilled water, but the experiment proved successful with pure water preparation. The flushing process in the darkroom, the drug solution should never see the light and kept at room temperature about 20 ℃ rinse the preparation time drug solution custody properly, can be use in a month or so.