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Main Applications of Hologram

After 60 years of development, hologram has been closely integrated with computer technology, photovoltaic technology, as well as non-linear optical technology to become a high-tech, extended to the fields of medicine, art, decoration, packaging, printing, and in some developed countries also risethe holographic industry, and is forming an increasingly broad market, practical outlook is very impressive. This article describes holography is widely used, the more mature field of industrialization and its development direction.


Hologram Storage

Hologram storage is based on the principle of the holography, the information stored holographic manner and the use of the coupling between the two waves decoupler, the comparison between the information storage and information (related), identification, even lenovo. The function combine information storage and information processing is that you can combine. More recording medium for the hologram information storage information hologram dry plate with a silver salt, silver salt of a non-bleaching type phase hologram dry plate, a photopolymer, and the photoresist or the like, can be permanently stored; erasable reused real-time recording material light conductive plastic, organic or inorganic photorefractive materials. Holographic storage has huge advantages in terms of storage capacity, because:

(1) Hologram storage has the advantage of large storage capacity. When information is recorded as an ordinary photographic photosensitive dry plate, the magnitude of the information storage density generally 105bit/mm2; the plane hologram stored information, the storage density generally can be increased to an order of magnitude up to 106bit/mm2; if volume hologram stored information , storage density can be as high as 1013bit/mm2. Local defects and damage a great deal of redundancy, the storage medium

(2) Hologram storage does not cause loss of information.

(3) Hologram storage with high read rate and can be read in parallel, each data page can contain up to 1Mbit of information, time to write a read information about 100ms time can be less than 100μs, while the disk addressing at least 10ms.

Hologram storage research boom set off worldwide, and great progress, mainly in:

(1) The storage capacity is rapidly increasing performance continues to improve, and gradually moving towards practical. For example, in 1994, the California Institute of Technology in 1cm3 iron ni acid filing crystals doped 1000 recorded hologram, the same year, a Stanford University research team digitized images compressed video data stored in a holographic memory and reproduction These data, while the image quality without significantly decreased. California Polytechnic University in 1999, the use of empty - angular multiplexing storage of 26,000 holograms in iron-doped lithium niobate crystal in the same piece. Tsinghua University in Beijing 1500 in the same space location records the doped iron ni acid Keng crystal hologram and developed smart holographic storage device has a compact structure.

(2) The utility of the holographic storage system is gradually introduced. For example, in 1995, by the U.S. Government Advanced Research Projects Authority (ARPA), IBM's Almaden Research Center, Stanford University jointly set up a collaborative organization and Shimokawa in U.S. National Storage Industry Federation (NS1C) support, an investment of about $ 70 million, embodiment photorefractive information storage materials (PRISM) and the holographic data storage system (HDSS) project, is expected to be developed in five years having 1T bit capacity of the data storage rate of 1000MB / s write-once or rewritable person holographic data storage system. The same study in countries such as France, the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan are also being stepped up.


Optoelectronic technologies and devices in recent years, made ​​a series of significant progress, and provide the necessary high-performance semiconductor laser hologram memory, the core components of the liquid crystal spatial light modulator, CCD array detector, the development of the theories and methods of holographic storagemake this technology matures.


History of Hologram

Holography dates from 1947 , when British (native of Hungary) scientist Dennis Gabor developed the theory of holography while working to improve the resolution of an electron microscope.Gabor coined the term hologram from the Greek words holos, meaning "whole," and gramma, meaning "message". Further development in the field was stymied during the next decade because light sources available at the time were not truly "coherent" (monochromatic or one-color, from a single point, and of a single wavelength).


Dr. Dennis Gabor


This barrier was overcome in 1960 by Russian scientists N. Bassov and A. Prokhorov and American scientist Charles Towns with the invention of the laser, whose pure, intense light was ideal for making holograms.

In that year the pulsed-ruby laser was developed by Dr. T.H. Maimam . This laser system (unlike the continuous wave laser normally used in holography) emits a very powerful burst of light that lasts only a few nanoseconds (a billionth of a second). It effectively freezes movement and makes it possible to produce holograms of high-speed events, such as a bullet in flight, and of living subjects. The first hologram of a person was made in 1967 , paving the way for a specialized application of holography: pulsed holographic portraiture.



In 1962 Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks of the University of Michigan recognized from their work in side-reading radar that holography could be used as a 3-D visual medium. In 1962 they read Gabor's paper and "simply out of curiosity" decided to duplicate Gabor's technique using the laser and an "off-axis" technique borrowed from their work in the development of side-reading radar. The result was the first laser transmission hologram of 3-D objects (a toy train and bird). These transmission holograms produced images with clarity and realistic depth but required laser light to view the holographic image.



Their pioneering work led to standardization of the equipment used to make holograms. Today, thousands of laboratories and studios possess the necessary equipment: a continuous wave laser, optical devices (lens, mirrors and beam splitters) for directing laser light, a film holder and an isolation table on which exposures are made. Stability is absolutely essential because movement as small as a quarter wave- length of light during exposures of a few minutes or even seconds can completely spoil a hologram. The basic off-axis technique that Leith and Upatnieks developed is still the staple of holographic methodology.

Also in 1962 Dr. Yuri N. Denisyuk from Russia combined holography with 1908 Nobel Laureate Gabriel Lippmann's work in natural color photography. Denisyuk's approach produced a white-light reflection hologram which, for the first time, could be viewed in light from an ordinary incandescent light bulb.



Another major advance in display holography occurred in 1968 when Dr. Stephen A. Benton invented white-light transmission holography while researching holographic television at Polaroid Research Laboratories. This type of hologram can be viewed in ordinary white light creating a "rainbow" image from the seven colors which make up white light. The depth and brilliance of the image and its rainbow spectrum soon attracted artists who adapted this technique to their work and brought holography further into public awareness.
Benton's invention is particularly significant because it made possible mass production of holograms using an embossing technique. These holograms are "printed" by stamping the interference pattern onto plastic. The resulting hologram can be duplicated millions of times for a few cents apiece. Consequently, embossed holograms are now being used by the publishing, advertising, and banking industries.



In 1972 Lloyd Cross developed the integral hologram by combining white-light transmission holography with conventional cinematography to produce moving 3-dimensional images. Sequential frames of 2-D motion-picture footage of a rotating subject are recorded on holographic film. When viewed, the composite images are synthesized by the human brain as a 3-D image.

In 70's Victor Komar and his colleagues at the All-Union Cinema and Photographic Research Institute (NIFKI) in Russia, developed a prototype for a projected holographic movie. Images were recorded with a pulsed holographic camera. The developed film was projected onto a holographic screen that focused the dimensional image out to several points in the audience.

Holographic artists have greatly increased their technical knowledge of the discipline and now contribute to the technology as well as the creative process. The art form has become international, with major exhibitions being held throughout the world.



The first hologram was made in 1947 by Dennis Gabor, a Hungarian-born scientist who was working at the Imperial College of London. Gabor was attempting to refine the design of an electron microscope. He devised a new technique, which he decided to test with a filtered light beam before trying it with an electron beam. Gabor made a transmission hologram by carefully filtering his light source, but the process did not become practical until technology provided a way to produce coherent light-light that consists of a single frequency and a single wavelength. Hologram production took off with the invention of the laser in 1960, as a laser generates light that is of a single color (frequency) and produces waves that travel in phase with one another.

In 1962, using a laser to replicate Gabor's holography experiment, Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks of the University of Michigan produced a transmission hologram of a toy train and a bird. The image was clear and three-dimensional, but it could only be viewed by illuminating it with a laser. That same year Uri N. Denisyuk of the Soviet Union produced a reflection hologram that could be viewed with light from an ordinary bulb.

A further advance came in 1968 when Stephen A. Benton created the first transmission hologram that could be viewed in ordinary light. This led to the development of embossed holograms, making it possible to mass produce holograms for common use. Nearly a quarter century after he had made the first hologram, Gabor was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for this achievement in 1971. The following year, Lloyd Cross made the first recording of a moving hologram by imprinting sequential frames from ordinary moving picture film onto holographic film.

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